Ovarian cancer strikes fewer than half as many women as endometrial cancer, yet ovarian cancer has double the mortality rate. The symptoms for this cancer tend to be vague at first. As the disease progresses, women may experience discomfort or pressure in their pelvic area, back, abdomen or legs. They may feel fatigued, bloated, nauseated, constipated, and have diarrhea or indigestion. Some women experience breathlessness, vaginal bleeding·even after menopause·and feel they have to urinate frequently.
Endometrial cancer (also known as uterine cancer) develops in the tissue lining the uterus. This disease is a few steps ahead of ovarian cancer in terms of how frequently it is diagnosed, but it tends to be much less deadly. Women with early-stage endometrial cancer may experience unexplained vaginal spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods or after menopause (when they should not experience any bleeding). They may have pain or difficulty during urination, discomfort during sex, or pain in the pelvic region. Individuals with any of these symptoms should see a doctor for propergynecological examinations.
Risk factors associated with ovarian and endometrial cancers includes:
Age over 55 years. Diet high in total fat content (in particular animal fat). Because fat stimulates the body's production of estrogen hormone which in turn increases ovulation thereby increasing cancer risk. Genetic predisposition in familes with mutation in the DNA repair genes known as BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Ionizing radiation, obesity and diabetes are associated with increase risk to ovarian and endometiral cancer.
Healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables and moderate level of excercise (avoidance of sedentary lifestyle) are all associated with reduced risk of this type of cancer.
For detailed information read "Cancer Causes and Controversies- Understanding risk reduction and prevention"